Nonviolence also holds that a moral evaluation of war is a duty, and that war is always found to be immoral. It was influential on later thought about war. Another subcategory of the cataclysmic school of thought is the ethnocentric cataclysmic, in which this view is focused specifically on the plight of a specific ethnicity or nationfor example the view in Judaism of war as a punishment from God on the Israelites in certain books of the Tenakh Old Testament.
If war can be avoided, that must be determined first, according to the philosophy of just war theory. Ethical categories[ edit ] Another possible system for categorizing different schools of thought on war can be found in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy see external links, belowbased on ethics.
Just war theoryalong with pacifism, holds that morals do apply to war. Eugene Victor Debs and others were famous advocates of pacifistic diplomatic methods instead of war. The concept of a morally justified war underlies much of the concept International Lawsuch as the Geneva Conventions.
It combines observations on strategy with questions about human nature and the purpose of war. Generally, there are two kinds of modern secular pacifism to consider: These are not the only possible teleological philosophies of war, but only three of the most common.
Next, war "ought" to be instrumental, in the sense that it ought to be waged in order to achieve some goal, never for its own sake; and also in the sense that strategy and tactics ought to be directed towards just one end, namely towards victory.
Carl von Clausewitz, painting by Karl Wilhelm Wach. AristotleCiceroAugustineAquinasand Hugo Grotius are among the philosophers who have espoused some form of a just war philosophy.
Bush in and have often been justified under the doctrine of preemptiona political motivation stating that the United States must use war to prevent further attacks such as the September 11, attacks. Just war theory[ edit ] Just war theory is a sect of war philosophy thought to have been founded by St.
The philosophy of just war theorizes what aspects of war are justifiable according to morally acceptable principles. Pacifism however, maintains that a moral evaluation of war is possible, and that war is always found to be immoral. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy refers to Carl von Clausewitz is "the only so-called philosopher of war", implying that he is the only major philosophical writer who develops a philosophical system focusing exclusively on war.
There are two subsets of this view: However, discernible traditions of thought on war have developed over time, so that some writers have been able to distinguish broad categories if somewhat loosely. For example, war has at times been viewed as a pastime or an adventureas the only proper occupation for a noblemanas an affair of honor for example, the days of chivalryas a ceremony e.
Right intention criterion requires the determination of whether or not a war response is a measurable way to the conflict being acted upon. Realists will typically hold that systems of morals and ethics which guide individuals within societies cannot realistically be applied to societies as a whole to govern the way they, as societies, interact with other societies.
Perhaps the greatest and most influential work in the philosophy of war is On War by Carl von Clausewitz. One common just war theory evaluation of war is that war is only justified if 1. GandhiMartin Luther King and Leo Tolstoy were all famous advocates of power of truthlawfulnesssoft powernonviolent resistance and civil disobedience methods instead of war and to prevent war.
He concludes that the latter cannot be so, and that war is " politics by different means"; i. It must serve some purpose for the state. CrusadesJihadsthe Nazi concept of a Master Race and the 19th century American concept of Manifest Destiny may also fall under this heading.
Clausewitz especially examines the teleology of war: These do not, of course, exhaust the views of war prevailing at different times and at different places.
The SEP describes three major divisions in the ethics of war: The four principles are as follows: Political philosopher John Rawls advocated these criteria as justification for war. In this view, the decision to wage war "ought" to be rational, in the sense that it ought to be based on estimated costs and gains of war.
The Marxist concept of a communist world ruled by the proletariat after a final worldwide revolution is an example of the global theory, and the Christian concept of an Armageddon war which will usher in the second coming of Christ and the final defeat of Satan is an example of a theory that could fall under Global or Messianic.
Gandhi said he disliked more cowardice than violence. Christian eschatologyJewish eschatology The Political school of thought, of which Clausewitz was a proponent, sees war as a tool of the state. Finally, war "ought" to be national, in the sense that its objective should be to advance the interests of a national state and that the entire effort of the nation ought to be mobilized in the service of the military objective.
On page 13 Rapoport says, Clausewitz views war as a rational instrument of national policy. The three words " rational ", " instrument " and "national" are the key concepts of his paradigm.
However, unlike pacifism, according to just war theory it is possible for a war to be morally justified.The Billion Dollar Spy: A True Story of Cold War Espionage and Betrayal [David E. Hoffman] on mint-body.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. A Washington Post Notable Book of the Year It was the height of the Cold War.
The philosophy of war is the area of philosophy devoted to examining issues such as the causes of war, the relationship between war and human nature, and the ethics of war. Certain aspects of the philosophy of war overlap with the philosophy of history, political philosophy, international relations and the philosophy of law.Download