The Official View has drawn its principles more from old moralism than from new scientific discoveries. It precipitates anguish, suicide, depression, disorientation, and domestic violence. Has there really been any fundamental change in thinking over this period?
Despite countless interventions carried out under the rubric of the Official View, the prevalence of addiction has continued to rise throughout the 20th century and into the 21st.
This idea may seem to be a relic of the 19th century, but it was still the conventional view of heroin when I was a young researcher in the s, and it re-appeared during the panics over crack cocaine in the s and methamphetamine around the turn of the 21st century.
Such epigenetic factors could have a major effect on future addiction which would be incorrectly counted as genetic variance, under current experimental designs.
Short-term exposure, as seen on September 11, may trigger severe asthma attacks http: On the other hand, some people can neither reduce their dislocation nor find better ways to cope with it than ruinous addictions.
The Guardian newspaper on June 13, reported the overt political suppression of a fourteen-year old World Health Organization study on cocaine, which showed that large numbers of people all over the world used cocaine and crack without addiction, medical harm, or anti-social behavior.
Medieval Christians thought that consorting with demons produced an irreversible loss of willpower, which they called "demon possession". We are in the midst of a flood of excessive addiction that steadily grows wider — because more and more habits and pursuits are being used addictively — and deeper — because more and more people are addicted.
They may internalize their dislocation as a personal failure and be only dimly aware of the adaptive function of their addiction.
Therefore, everybody who uses drugs is at risk of becoming addicted. This contradicts the 6th foundational element of the Official View. Environmental Health Perspectives, April ; i4 p These ridiculous assertions by mainstream media figures were not actively refuted in public statements of the Official View.
Psychoanalytic theories of unconscious causation flourished in that same era. Genetic research provides no substantial evidence of a genetic predisposition to addiction.
Portlandite Gypsum All of these building components can cause eye irritation, rashes and upper respiratory distress. There is no way to confidently predict who will actually become addicted. Its main proponents today are the front-line addiction counselors, social workers, pastoral counselors, and public health advocates who are responding pragmatically to people with serious addiction problems and have not been caught up in the Official View.
For a time around World War I, immunological theories of addiction based on the idea that heroin and other drugs were "toxins" became dominant. In these ways, addiction completes the positive feedback loop and perpetuates itself.
The world-wide epidemic of obesity, diabetes, and eating disorders is one important testimonial to the fact that drug addictions are far from the most important corner of the tapestry of human addictions.
However, many drug researchers and policy experts have noted that the Official View, as expressed by NIDA, offers tacit support to the War on Drugs on a variety of levels. Natural recovery is the most likely outcome of addiction. Of course, individuals can be severely dislocated by events that have nothing to do with modernity, including natural catastrophes like earthquakes and tsunamis and idiosyncratic genetic and epigenetic events.
Clinicians and drug counselors who listen carefully in situations of trust know that most people who are addicted to drugs, as well as other habits and pursuits, are far from out of control. Despite all the scientific razzle-dazzle in support of the Official View, the idea that drugs cause the chronic disease of addiction by re-wiring the brain is not a new idea, not a scientific discovery, and not a scientific paradigm, although the proponents of the Official View sometimes claim that it is.The Rise and Fall of the Official View of Addiction Bruce K.
Alexander, Professor Emeritus Simon Fraser University Revised July 3 Confession and Plea to the High Court in the Field of Addiction.
The deadline to apply for individual disaster assistance was November 24,but that does not mean FEMA is mint-body.com continues working with the State to help survivors and communities recover. States, Communities, and Coalitions Solving the asthma problem in our communities means bringing people and resources together.
Reducing the public health burden of asthma through improved asthma control is a goal shared by state and local leaders, patients and their families, and other community stakeholders. UN News produces daily news content in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Kiswahili, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish, and weekly programmes in Hindi, Urdu and Bangla.
Our multimedia service, through this new integrated single platform, updates throughout the day, in text, audio and video – also making use of quality images and other media. Objective: Minority children with asthma who live in low-income urban communities bear a disproportionate burden of the disease.
This study explores the perceived health care needs related to asthma care, identifies asthma triggers, potential barriers to care, and assesses the need for additional community resources. COMMUNITY LYNCHING AND THE US ASTHMA EPIDEMIC Rodrick Wallace, Ph.D., Mindy Thompson Fullilove, M.D., The New York State sectional and longitudinal effects of a systematic destruction of minority urban communities issue of The American Journal of Public Health , including the Karlsen and Nazroo article, has.Download