Perception[ edit ] This section possibly contains original research. Such person does not have the final authority to approve, or the ultimate responsibility for, engineering designs, plans, or specifications that are to be: The profession in each province is governed by its own engineering association.
Currently, most states do not license Electrical engineering thesis projects specific engineering discipline, but rather provide generalized licensure, and trust engineers to use professional judgment regarding their individual competencies; this is the favoured approach of the professional societies.
These titles are protected by law and are subject to strict requirements defined by the Engineering Council UK. Accreditation is the process by which engineering programs are evaluated by an external body to determine if applicable standards are met.
Each state tests and licenses professional engineers. Often, general courses not directly related Electrical engineering thesis projects engineering, such as those in the social sciences or humanities, also are required.
In Italy, the title is limited to people who both hold an engineering degree and have passed a professional qualification examination Esame di Stato.
A design course, often accompanied by a computer or laboratory class or both, is part of the curriculum of most Electrical engineering thesis projects. In the United States, post-secondary degree programs in engineering are accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology.
The practice of engineering in the UK is not a regulated profession but the control of the titles of chartered engineer CEng and incorporated engineer IEng is regulated.
Most commonly titled professional engineer is a license to practice and is indicated with the use of post-nominal letters ; PE or P. The Challenger disaster is held as a case study of engineering ethics.
The Washington Accord serves as an international accreditation agreement for academic engineering degrees, recognizing the substantial equivalency in the standards set by many major national engineering bodies.
In the United States, an "industrial exemption" allows businesses to employ employees and call them an "engineer", as long as such individuals are under the direct supervision and control of the business entity and function internally related to manufacturing manufactured parts related to the business entity, or work internally within an exempt organization.
Despite this, at least one of the examinations required by most states is actually focused on a particular discipline; candidates for licensure typically choose the category of examination which comes closest to their respective expertise.
For instance, in the Province of British Columbia an engineering graduate with four or more years of post graduate experience in an engineering-related field and passing exams in ethics and law will need to be registered by the Association for Professional Engineers and Geoscientists APEGBC  in order to become a Professional Engineer and be granted the professional designation of P.
Regulation and licensure in engineering In many countries, engineering tasks such as the design of bridges, electric power plants, industrial equipment, machine design and chemical plants, must be approved by a licensed professional engineer.
The title CEng is in use in much of the Commonwealth.
Depending on their specializations, engineers may also be governed by specific statute, whistleblowing, product liability laws, and often the principles of business ethics.
Engineering education Most engineering programs involve a concentration of study in an engineering specialty, along with courses in both mathematics and the physical and life sciences. In the United States, engineering is a regulated profession whose practice and practitioners are licensed and governed by law.
In Continental EuropeLatin America, Turkey, and elsewhere the title is limited by law to people with an engineering degree and the use of the title by others is illegal.
In Portugal, professional engineer titles and accredited engineering degrees are regulated and certified by the Ordem dos Engenheiros. Engineers have obligations to the public, their clients, employers, and the profession.
Each engineering discipline and professional society maintains a code of ethics, which the members pledge to uphold. In the Czech Republic, the title "engineer" Ing.Definition.
Inthe Conference of Engineering Societies of Western Europe and the United States of America defined "professional engineer" as follows: A professional engineer is competent by virtue of his/her fundamental education and training to apply the scientific method and outlook to the analysis and solution of engineering problems.
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